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# Journal Publications

This section contains all refereed journal publications that have some connection either with the Mace Head Research Station or with members, both present and past, of the Atmospheric Physics Research Cluster at NUI, Galway.

Click on the "Search Document" icon above to find a publication based on the search criteria you create.

## Documents

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### Biogenic coastal aerosol production and its influence on aerosol radiative properties

 Date added: 07/31/2001 Date modified: 07/27/2009 Filesize: 562.71 kB
O'Dowd, C.D., Biogenic coastal aerosol production and its influence on aerosol radiative properties, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 1545-1550, 2001

Abstract

Coastal zones have been shown to provide a massive source of new, tidal-related, aerosol particles in the atmospheric boundary layer with concentrations exceeding 1,000,000 cm−3 during nucleation bursts sustained over many hours [O Dowd, 200O]. While coastal regions are very strong sources of natural aerosol particles, hithertofore, it has not been demonstrated that these particles contribute to aerosol-related radiative flux. In this brief report, evidence is presented for growth of these new particles, following tidal-related particle formation, into radiatively active particle sizes (i.e. radius>50 nm) where an increase in concentration of more than 300% can be seen. This increase of radiatively active particles concomitantly results in more than a threefold enhancement in both aerosol scattering ability (thereby influencing direct radiative flux) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) availability (thereby influencing indirect radiative flux). These results provide direct evidence for coastal biogenic emissions significantly enhancing the radiative flux potential of atmospheric aerosols.

### Bromine oxide in the mid-latitude marine boundary layer

 Date added: 08/07/2004 Date modified: 07/27/2009 Filesize: 153.87 kB

Saiz-Lopez, A., J. M. C. Plane, and J. A. Shillito (2004), Bromine oxide in the mid-latitude marine boundary layer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L03111, doi:10.1029/2003GL018956.

Abstract

We report direct observations of bromine oxide (BrO) in the mid-latitude marine boundary layer (MBL), using long-path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). The measurements were made at the Mace Head observatory on the west coast of Ireland. Over six days of observations, the BrO concentration varied from below the detection limit (≈0.8 parts per trillion (ppt)) at night, to a maximum daytime concentration of 6.5 ppt. At the average daytime concentration of 2.3 ppt, BrO causes significant O3 depletion in the MBL through catalytic cycles involving the iodine oxide and hydroperoxy radicals, and also oxidises dimethyl sulfide much more rapidly than the hydroxyl radical. A post-sunrise pulse of BrO was observed, consistent with the build up of photolabile precursors produced by heterogeneous reactions on sea-salt aerosol during the previous night. This indicates that significant bromine activation occurs over the open ocean.

### Long-term measurements of the concentrations of halocarbons in an urban area of Kraków, Poland

 Date added: 08/07/2003 Date modified: 07/24/2009 Filesize: 210.57 kB

Lasa J., Śliwka I. Long.term measurements of the concentrations of halocarbons in an urban area of Kraków, Poland. Applied Energy, 75 (2003), 155-163.

Abstract

The results of the measurements of the concentrations of freons (F-11 and F-113), chloroform (CHCl3), trichloroethane (CH3CCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in air are presented. The data concern concentration measurements that have been conducted in Krakow since half way through 1997 to the end of 1999. The mean monthly values of these concentrations have been compared with the data from Mace Head, the station situated at a similar longitude as Krakow. It has been concluded that, in the observed period of time, the concentrations of the pollutants in Krakow are higher than in Mace Head. The mean monthly concentrations of F-11 and CCl4 decrease in Krakow faster than in Mace Head (2.5 and 3.3 times, respectively). The concentrations of CHCl3 and CH3CCl3 decrease at both locations, but the change is greater in Krakow. In Krakow, the observed increase of F-113 is 0.13 ppt/month and has an opposite trend than in the same period at Mace Head.

### Micron-sized droplets irradiated with a pulsed CO2 laser measurement of explosion and breakdown thresholds

 Date added: 07/31/1990 Date modified: 07/03/2009 Filesize: 1.33 MB
Pinnick, R.G., Biswas, A., Armstrong, R.L., Jennings, S.G., Pendleton, J.D., and Fernandez, G. (1990). - Micron-sized droplets irradiated with a pulsed CO2 laser: Measurements of explosion and breakdown thresholds. Appl. Opt., 29, 918 - 925.

Abstract

Measurements of minimum CO2 laser fluence required to explode or disintegrate 10–60 µm radius droplets of water, ethanol, diesel (hexadecane), CCl4, bromoform, and ethyl bromide are reported. Threshold fluences range from 0.4 J cm-2 for 10-µm radius ethanol drops to 20 J cm-2 for 30µm bromoform drops. Threshold fluences for water droplets are ~3 J cm-2 independent of drop size. Comparison of the measurements to calculations of laser fluence required for considered absorbing droplets to reach superheat temperature is in good agreement for cases where liquid material properties are known, suggesting that superheating of droplets is the dominant mechanism causing explosion/disintegration. Measured droplet-induced laser breakdown thresholds are considerably higher than explosion thresholds and have less dependence on droplet size and composition. The highest breakdown threshold values are for water drops, which range from 150 to 280 J cm-2 (0.9–1.7 × 109W cm-2) compared with 670 J cm-2 (4.0 × 109 W cm-2) for clean air breakdown for the laser pulse length and spot size.

### EUCAARI: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions

 Date added: 04/28/2009 Date modified: 11/01/2009 Filesize: 670.53 kB

Kulmala, M., A. Asmi, H. K. Lappalainen, K. S. Carslaw, U. P¨oschl, U. Baltensperger, Ø. Hov, J.-L. Brenquier, S. N. Pandis, M. C. Facchini, H.-C. Hansson, A. Wiedensohler, and C. D. O’Dowd. Introduction: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) – Integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales, Atmos. Chem. & Phys., 9, 2825-2841, 2009.

Abstract

The European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project EUCAARI is an EU Research
Framework 6 integrated project focusing on understanding the interactions of climate and air pollution. EUCAARI works in an integrative and multidisciplinary way from nano to global scale. EUCAARI brings together several leading European research groups, state-of-the-art infrastructure and some key scientists from third countries to investigate the role of aerosol on climate and air quality. Altogether 48 partners from 25 countries are participating in EUCAARI.
During the first 16 months EUCAARI has built operational systems, e.g. established pan-European measurement network for Lagrangian studies and four stations in developing countries. Also an improved understanding of nanoscale processes (like nucleation) has been implemented in global models. Here we present the research methods, organisation, operations and first results of EUCAARI.

### Comparisons of aerosol nitrogen isotopic composition at two polluted coastal sites

 Date added: 08/06/2001 Date modified: 07/23/2009 Filesize: 281.41 kB

Yeatman, S.G. L.J. Spokes, P.F. Dennis and T.D. Jickells, Comparison of aerosol nitrogen isotope composition at two coastal sites, Atmos. Environ. 35, 1307-1320, 2001, (Ser. No. ACP125).

Abstract

Atmospheric fixed-nitrogen deposition can contribute to eutrophication in coastal and estuarine waters. Stable nitrogen isotope data can provide important information regarding the sources and processing of atmospheric fixed-nitrogen species and is thus important in controlling eutrophication. Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected from two coastal sites: Weybourne, England and Mace Head, Ireland and also aboard the RRS Challenger in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Aerosol concentrations of ammonium and nitrate were determined prior to δ15N isotopic analysis. For both species a significant difference in mean isotopic composition was seen between samples from Weybourne (+6±6‰ for ammonium and +7±6‰ for nitrate) and Mace Head and RRS Challenger campaigns (-9±8‰ for ammonium and -1±3‰ for nitrate). At each site a strong dependence of isotopic composition on the geographical origin of the sampled air mass was also observed. For aerosol ammonium, marine and terrestrially dominated samples were found to be isotopically distinct, perhaps reflecting the presence of oceanic sources of ammonia in addition to anthropogenic or natural terrestrial sources. Further distinctions were made within terrestrially dominated samples, possibly indicative of different types of animal husbandry regimes or other forms of anthropogenic activity. For aerosol nitrate, there was found to be generally less variation between samples at each site, although at Weybourne a significant difference was observed between the mean isotopic composition of samples originating from the northern UK (+15±3‰) and that of those originating from the southern UK (+10±3‰), suggesting that aerosol δ15N data might possibly facilitate source apportionment between NOx emissions from power stations and those from vehicle exhausts. The nitrate data also appeared to show seasonality with higher concentrations and lower δ15N values seen in the summer.

### Primary versus secondary contributions to particle number concentrations in the European boundary layer

 Date added: 03/12/2013 Date modified: 03/12/2013 Filesize: 2.77 MB

C.L. Reddington, K.S. Carslaw, D.V. Spracklen, M.G. Frontoso, L.Collins, J. Merikanto, A. Minikin, T. Hamburger, H.Coe, M. Kulmala, P. Aalto, H. Flentje, C. Plass-Dülmer, W. Birmili, A. Wiedensohler, B. Wehner, T. Tuch, A.Sonntag, C. D. O'Dowd, S.G. Jennings, R.Dupuy, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, H.-C. Hansson, P. Tunved, P. Laj, K. Sellegri, J. Boulon, J.-P. Putaud, C. Gruening, E. Swietlicki, P. Roldin, J. S. Henzing, M. Moerman, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, V. Ždímal, N. Zíková, A. Marinoni, P. Bonasoni, and R. Duchi,Primary versus secondary contributions to particle number concentrations in the European boundary layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12007-12036, 2011, www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/12007/2011/ doi:10.5194/acp-11-12007-2011

Abstract. It is important to understand the relative contribution of primary and secondary particles to regional and global aerosol so that models can attribute aerosol radiative forcing to different sources. In large-scale models, there is considerable uncertainty associated with treatments of particle formation (nucleation) in the boundary layer (BL) and in the size distribution of emitted primary particles, leading to uncertainties in predicted cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Here we quantify how primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation influence size-resolved particle number concentrations in the BL using a global aerosol microphysics model and aircraft and ground site observations made during the May 2008 campaign of the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI). We tested four different parameterisations for BL nucleation and two assumptions for the emission size distribution of anthropogenic and wildfire carbonaceous particles. When we emit carbonaceous particles at small sizes (as recommended by the Aerosol Intercomparison project, AEROCOM), the spatial distributions of campaign-mean number concentrations of particles with diameter >50 nm (N50) and >100 nm (N100) were well captured by the model (R2 >0.8) and the normalised mean bias (NMB) was also small (18% for N50 and 1% for N100). Emission of carbonaceous particles at larger sizes, which we consider to be more realistic for low spatial resolution global models, results in equally good correlation but larger bias R2 >0.8, NMB =52% and 29 %), which could be partly but not entirely compensated by BL nucleation. Within the uncertainty of the observations and accounting for the uncertainty in the size of emitted primary particles, BL nucleation makes a statistically significant contribution to CCN-sized particles at less than a quarter of the ground sites. Our results show that a major source of uncertainty in CCN-sized particles in polluted European air is the emitted size of primary carbonaceous particles. New information is required not just from direct observations, but also to determine the “effective emission size” and composition of primary particles appropriate for different resolution models.

### Eddy correlation measurements of ozone fluxes over coastal waters west if Ireland

 Date added: 11/10/2010 Date modified: 11/10/2010 Filesize: 980.87 kB

McVeigh, P., C. O’Dowd, and H. Berresheim, Eddy correlation measurements of ozone fluxes over coastal waters west if Ireland,  Adv. in Meteorol., Volume 2010, Article ID 754941, doi:10.1155/2010/754941, 2010.

Measurements of ozone fluxes using the eddy-correlation (EC) technique were carried out for the first time at the Mace Head atmospheric research station, on the west coast of Ireland between August-October 2009. Vertical exchange of ozone was measured from a tower platform at 22m above mean sea level to study fluxes over coastal waters excluding the tidal region. The results were averaged over 30 min and exhibited predominantly downward but also upward transport of ozone in the boundary layer. Data quality was found to be high based on inspection of cospectra and micrometeorological measurements. During the study period, a major physical influence on O3 fluxes was found to be wind speed. Measured fluxes were of the same magnitude as reported in previous open ocean studies ranging from approximately +0.2 to 0.5 μg m2 s1 (0.017 μg m2 s1 on average, corresponding to a deposition velocity of 0.25mm s1 or a surface resistance of 4.13 s mm1). These results are considered to represent ozone fluxes over shallow coastal waters west of Ireland for conditions during summer and fall not affected by phytoplankton blooms.

### Regional climate model simulations of North Atlantic cyclones frequency and intensity changes

 Date added: 08/01/2008 Date modified: 07/23/2009 Filesize: 4.19 MB
Semmler, T., S. Varghese, R. McGrath, P. Nolan, S. Wang, P. Lynch, and C. O'Dowd (2008) 'Regional climate model simulations of North Atlantic cyclones: frequency and intensity changes'. Climate Research, 36 :1-16.

Abstract

Frequency and intensity of cyclones over the North Atlantic are investigated using 2 data sets from simulations with the Rossby Centre regional climate model RCA3. The model domain comprises large parts of the North Atlantic and the adjacent continents. RCA3 is driven by ECHAM5- OM1 general circulation model data for May to December from 1985 to 2000 and May to December from 2085 to 2100 assuming the SRES-A2 emission scenario. We apply an objective algorithm to identify and track tropical and extratropical cyclones, as well as extratropical transition. The simulation indicates increase in the count of strong hurricanes and extratropical cyclones. Contrasting, and generally weaker, changes are seen for the less extreme events. Decreases of 18% in the count of extratropical cyclones and 13% in the count of tropical cyclones with wind speeds of ≥18 m s–1 can be found. Furthermore, there is a pronounced shift in the tracks of hurricanes and their extratropical transition in November and December—more hurricanes are seen over the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea and the western Sargasso Sea and less over the southern North Atlantic.

### Dimethyl sulfide and its oxidation products in the atmosphere of the Atlantic and Southern Ocea

 Date added: 08/06/1996 Date modified: 07/23/2009 Filesize: 823.17 kB

Davison, B., C.D. O'Dowd, C.N. Hewitt, M.H. Smith, R.M. Harrison, D.A. Peel, E. Wolf, R. Mulvaney, M. Schwikowski and U. Baltensperger, Dimethyl Sulfide and its Oxidation Products in the Atmosphere of the Atlantic and Southern Oceans, Atmos. Environ., 30, 1895-1906, 1996

Abstract

Dimethyl sulfide, methane sulfonate, non-sea-salt sulfate and sulfur dioxide concentrations in air were obtained during a cruise between the U.K. and the Antarctic during the period October 1992-January 1993. In equatorial regions (30°N to 30°S) the atmospheric DMS concentration ranged from 3 to 46 ng (S)m-3 with an average of 18 ng(S)m-3. In the polar waters and regions south of the Falkland Islands concentrations from 3 to 714 ng(S)m-3 were observed with a mean concentration of 73 ng(S)m-3. Methane sulfonate concentrations were also enhanced in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula and in the Weddell Sea. A simple model of DMS oxidation was used to estimate the ocean to atmosphere flux rate, and this was found to be within the range of previous estimates, with a mean value of 1011 ng (S) m-2 h-1.

### An investigation of the behaviour of drops and drop-pairs subjected to strong electrical forces

 Date added: 09/12/1971 Date modified: 07/23/2009 Filesize: 703.62 kB

Brazier-Smith, P.R., Jennings, S.G., and Latham, J.  (1971)- An investigation of the behaviour of drops and drop-pairs subjected to strong electrical forces. Proc. Roy. Soc., A325, 363-376.

Abstract

A numerical model is described which simulates irrotational, incompressible flow on a computer. It has been applied to the problems of the deformation of uncharged drop-pairs separated in an electric field of critical strength and isolated drops charged to the Rayleigh limit in the absence of an electric field. In the case of pairs of drops of radius R, separated by an initial distance X in an electric field equal to that predicted by Brazier-Smith (1971) to cause disruption two types of interaction were identified. For values of X/R less than about 1.2 the drops deform and their surfaces accelerate towards each other and make contact. For X/R greater than about 1.2 the drops deform, a concavity appears at the near poles and then the near surfaces assume a conical profile of angle equal to that predicted by Taylor (1964). The subsequent issuance of liquid from these jets could not be studied with the present model. The computations predict that an isolated drop carrying the critical charge calculated by Rayleigh (1882) will deform, while retaining an approximately spheroidal shape, until the axial ratio achieves a value of about 2.5, whereupon cones possessing the Taylor angle are formed at each end of the drop, from which liquid will issue in the form of a jet. Experiments were performed in which uncharged water drops of radius R and surface tension T were directed towards a highly polished, earthed electrode at a shallow angle in an electric field of strength E. Each drop experienced the same electric forces as would result if the earthed electrode were removed and replaced by an identical drop twice as far away. Stroboscopic photographs of drops and their optical image in the polished electrode illustrated their deformation and eventual disintegration. The experimentally determined relation between normalized disintegration field E(R/T)1/4 and both X/R and the elongation a/b agreed well with theory over a wide range of separations.

### A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE

 Date added: 01/01/2000 Date modified: 07/23/2009 Filesize: 4.55 MB
Prinn, R. G., et al. (2000), A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D14), 17,751–17,792.

Abstract

We describe in detail the instrumentation and calibrations used in the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE), the Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (GAGE), and the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and present a history of the majority of the anthropogenic ozone-depleting and climate-forcing gases in air based on these experiments. Beginning in 1978, these three successive automated high-frequency in situ experiments have documented the long-term behavior of the measured concentrations of these gases over the past 20 years, and show both the evolution of latitudinal gradients and the high-frequency variability due to sources and circulation. We provide estimates of the long-term trends in total chlorine contained in long-lived halocarbons involved in ozone depletion. We summarize interpretations of these measurements using inverse methods to determine trace gas lifetimes and emissions. Finally, we provide a combined observational and modeled reconstruction of the evolution of chlorocarbons by latitude in the atmosphere over the past 60 years which can be used as boundary conditions for interpreting trapped air in glaciers and oceanic measurements of chlorocarbon tracers of the deep oceanic circulation. Some specific conclusions are as follows: (1) International compliance with the Montreal Protocol is so far resulting in chlorofluorocarbon and chlorocarbon mole fractions comparable to target levels; (2) mole fractions of total chlorine contained in long-lived halocarbons (CCl2F2, CCl3F, CH3CCl3, CCl4, CHClF2, CCl2FCClF2, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl2=CCl2) in the lower troposphere reached maximum values of about 3.6 ppb in 1993 and are beginning to slowly decrease in the global lower atmosphere; (3) the chlorofluorocarbons have atmospheric lifetimes consistent with destruction in the stratosphere being their principal removal mechanism; (4) multiannual variations in chlorofluorocarbon and chlorocarbon emissions deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE data are consistent approximately with variations estimated independently from industrial production and sales data where available (CCl2F2 (CFC-12) and CCl2FCClF2 (CFC-113) show the greatest discrepancies); (5) the mole fractions of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons, which are replacing the regulated halocarbons, are rising very rapidly in the atmosphere, but with the exception of the much longer manufactured CHClF2 (HCFC-22), they are not yet at levels sufficient to contribute significantly to atmospheric chlorine loading. These replacement species could in the future provide independent estimates of the global weighted-average OH concentration provided their industrial emissions are accurately documented; (6) in the future, analysis of pollution events measured using high-frequency in situ measurements of chlorofluorocarbons and their replacements may enable emission estimates at the regional level, which, together with industrial end-use data, are of sufficient accuracy to be capable of identifying regional noncompliance with the Montreal Protocol.

### High Electric fields from industrial stack plumes

 Date added: 01/01/1976 Date modified: 07/02/2009 Filesize: 338.61 kB

Jennings, S.G., and Jones, C.D. (1976)- High electric fields due to industrial stack plumes. Nature, 264, 236-237.

Abstract

THE use of electrostatic precipitators on an industrial stack to remove particulate matter and aerosol particles is now quite common. The plume emanating from such an installation is likely to be highly electrically charged, and consequently associated electrical effects should be observable downwind of the stack.

### Global trends and annual releases of CCl3F and CCl2F2 estimated from ALE GAGE and other measure

 Date added: 08/07/1994 Date modified: 07/24/2009 Filesize: 1.87 MB

Cunnold, D. M., P. J. Fraser, R. F. Weiss, R. G. Prinn, P. G. Simmonds, B. R. Miller, F. N. Alyea, and A. J. Crawford (1994), Global trends and annual releases of CCl3F and CCl2F2 estimated from ALE/GAGE and other measurements from July 1978 to June 1991, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D1), 1107–1126.

Abstract

Thirteen years of Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment/Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment CCl3F and CCl2F2 measurements at five remote, surface, globally distributed sites are analyzed. Comparisons are made against shipboard measurements by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography group and archived air samples collected at Cape Grim, Tasmania, since 1978. CCl3F in the lower troposphere was increasing at an average rate of 9.2 ppt/yr over the period July 1978 to June 1988. CCl2F2 was increasing at an average 17.3 ppt/yr in the lower troposphere over the same period. However, between July 1988 and June 1991 the increases of CCl3F and CCl2F2 in this region have averaged just 7.0 ppt/yr and 15.7 ppt/yr, respectively. The rate of increase has been decreasing 2.4 ppt/yr2 and 2.9 ppt/yr2 over this 3-year period. Based on a recent scenario of the global releases of these compounds and using the new calibration scale SIO 1993, the equilibrium lifetimes are estimated to be 44 - 10 + 17 and 180 - 81 + 820 years for CCl3F and CCl2F2, respectively. Using these lifetime estimates and a two-dimensional model, it is estimated that global releases of these two chlorofluorocarbons in 1990 were 249 ± 28 × 106 kg for CCl3F and 366 ± 30 × 106 kg for CCl2F2. It is also estimated that combined releases of these chlorofluorocarbons in 1990 were 21 ± 5% less than those in 1986.

### Chemical ionization mass spectrometer for long-term measurements of atmospheric OH and H2SO4

 Date added: 07/27/2000 Date modified: 07/27/2009 Filesize: 522 kB

Berresheim, H., T. Elste, C. Plass-Dulmer, F. L. Eisele and D. J. Tanner (2000). Chemical ionization mass spectrometer for long-term measurements of atmospheric OH and H2SO4. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 202 (1-3): 91-109.

Abstract

An atmospheric pressure/chemical ionization mass spectrometer (AP/CIMS) has been developed for continuous long-term
measurements of atmospheric OH and H2SO4. The corresponding methods both involve chemical ionization of H2SO4 by NO3-
ions with OH being first titrated by excess SO2 to form equivalent concentrations of H2SO4 in the system. The chemical
ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) system has been operated since April 1998 at the Meteorological Observatory
Hohenpeissenberg, a mountain research station of the German Weather Service in South Germany. A technical description of
the apparatus is presented followed by a detailed estimate of uncertainties in calibration and ambient air measurements
resulting from changes in instrumental and/or ambient parameters. Examples from both calibration runs and ambient air
measurements are shown. For the present system and operating conditions accuracy, precision, and detection limit are
estimated to be 39%, 30%, and 3 3 104 molecules cm23 for H2SO4, and 54%, 48%, and 5 3 105 molecules cm23 for OH
measurements, respectively, based on 5 min signal integration. (Int J Mass Spectrom 202 (2000) 91–109) © 2000 Elsevier
Science B.V.

 Date added: 08/07/2003 Date modified: 07/23/2009 Filesize: 34.15 kB
Fleming, Z.L.; Monks, P.S.; Rickard, A.R.; Heard, D.E.; Stills, T; Sommariva, R; Brough, N; Penkett, S.A.; Lewis, A.C.; Lee, J.D.Peroxy radical formation at Mace Head during NAMBLEX [EGU04-A-04097].

Abstract

Analysis of peroxy radical (HO$_2$ + $\Sigma$RO$_2$) data taken using the dual inlet Leicester/UEA PEroxy Radical Chemical Amplification (PERCA) instrument during the North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (NAMBLEX 2002) at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in county Galway, on the west coast of Ireland will be presented.
Photolysis rate coefficients of a variety of compounds (including ozone, formaldehyde and nitrous acid), measured using a spectral radiometer were seen to explain to a large extent the shape of the diurnal variation in the peroxy radicals. In the evening, (after the ozone photolysis is no longer significant) on many days there was still a large amount of radical production appearing to come from formaldehyde photolysis. On a minute timescale, NO$\rm _x$ is shown to suppress radical production but for the averaged peroxy radicals versus NO$\rm _x$ the relationship in daylight hours

there is a maximum in radical production at a NO$\rm _x$ level of just less than 0.5 ppbv and a marked shape to these plots. At nighttime, evidence for an increase in radical production with increasing NO$\rm _x$ shows that NO$_3$ chemistry is a contributor to radical production. Net photochemical ozone production and destruction rates were calculated using amongst other measurements, the peroxy radical data and showed that there were few periods during daylight hours when more ozone was destroyed than produced. In general there was usually a small overall production of ozone. The highest ozone producing periods were when the radical concentrations were high and the NO$\rm _x$ relatively low. HO2 data was compared with total peroxy radical data to examine the ratios of organic to hydrogen peroxy radicals. As the NO$\rm _x$ concentration increased, the proportion of HO$_2$ increased. Examining the contribution of a variety of VOCs to radical production (via their reaction with OH) may explain the variation in
the HO$_2$ : RO$_2$ ratio.

### Biogenic iodine emissions and identification of end products in coastal ultrafine particles during nucleation bursts

 Date added: 07/31/2002 Date modified: 07/27/2009 Filesize: 703.95 kB
J.M. Mäkelä, T. Hoffmann, C. Holzke, M. Väkevä, T. Suni, T. Mattila, P.P. Aalto, U. Tapper, E.I. Kauppinen and C.D. O'Dowd, Biogenic iodine emissions and identification of end products in coastal ultrafine particles during nucleation bursts. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000580,

Abstract

Ultrafine particles sampled during new particle formation bursts observed in the coastal zone were studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and elemental analysis using energy-dispersive X ray (EDX). It was observed that both iodine and sulphur were present in the new particles with diameter below 10 mn. Gaseous emissions of halogen compounds from seaweeds were also measured at the same location during low-tide particle nucleation episodes. Based on the presence of iodine in the particle phase during low-tide nucleation bursts, and the significant emission of iodine compounds from the seaweeds during these periods, it is apparent that part of the biogenic iodine species emitted from the seaweeds end up in the ultrafine particulate phase. It was not possible to quantitatively determine the iodine content in the particles; however, in most cases the relative contribution from iodine and sulphate was similar, while some cases indicated no sulphate. On larger sized particles the contribution of sulphate was significantly higher than iodine. It appears that the condensable species leading to the appearance of new particles in the coastal atmosphere is an iodine species. Whether or not this iodine species also participates in the nucleation of new stable clusters could not be completely verified.

### Low Molecular Weight Organic Compounds in Maritime Air Recent Results from NAMBLEX Experiment,

 Date added: 08/06/2003 Date modified: 07/24/2009 Filesize: 13.55 kB
Read, K.; Hopkins, J.; Lewis, A., "Low Molecular Weight Organic Compounds in Maritime Air: Recent Results from NAMBLEX Experiment, Mace Head, Ireland", Geophysical Research Abstracts Volume 5, 2003.

Abstract

A dual channel GC-FID for the simultaneous measurement of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and some previously unmeasured oxygenated hydrocarbons (O-VOC) in the atmosphere has been developed and run alongside an established single channel GC-FID measuring NMHC. The instruments were implemented in the field as part of the NAMBLEX (North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment) campaign to investigate the role of these trace species in the marine boundary layer. Oxygen containing species such as aldehydes, ketones and alcohols although well known to be highly significant in atmospheric reactions, have in the past been poorly

understood from both distribution and source perspectives. They exist from a combination of both biogenic and anthropogenic emissions together with a secondary source from hydrocarbon oxidation. Under all maritime conditions the organic composition was dominated by acetone, methanol and acetaldehyde with the sum of these compounds contributing up to 85% of the carbon mass of organics in air and up to 80% of the normalised OH radical sink. The relative contribution of NMHC was only comparable when isoprene emissions from terrestrial sources were present. In marine air masses a positive correlation was seen between average zonal surface wind speed and DMS concentration in air in line with previous studies. No equivalent behaviour was recreated for either acetone or acetaldehyde indicating that in this region the ocean is not a significant atmospheric source. These O-VOC compounds appeared to follow the general trends of anthropogenic NMHC tracers such as acetylene indicating a common terrestrial origin for these compounds. Methanol however showed strong anti correlation with averaged wind speed directly indicating that the surface ocean was acting as a sink.

### Long-term measurements of atmospheric mercury at Mace Head, Irish west coast, between 1995 and

 Date added: 08/07/2002 Date modified: 07/24/2009 Filesize: 236.55 kB

Long-term measurements of atmospheric mercury at Mace Head, Irish west coast, between 1995 and 2001 R. Ebinghaus, H.H. Kock, A.M. Coggins, T.G. Spain, S.G. Jennings, C. Temme Atmos. Environ., 36, 5267-5276, 2002

Abstract

Monitoring of atmospheric mercury concentrations has been carried out at the Mace Head atmospheric research station on the west coast of Ireland between September 1995 and December 2001. Measurements were carried out with a time resolution of 15 min. No trend in the concentration levels has been detected during the measurement period, with the annual average concentrations remaining constant at 1.75 ng m−3. A slight increase in the concentration levels is derived, if only clean sector filtered air masses clearly of marine origin are used.

The Mace Head data set shows a seasonal pattern with higher monthly mean concentrations in the winter months. Comparison with two continental sites in Sweden shows, that atmospheric mercury concentrations at the western inflow boundary are on an average higher than those at the two continental sites, expressing a west to east decreasing concentration gradient.

At Mace Head, no indications for so-called Mercury Depletion Events (MDEs), recently reported for a number of sites in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, have been found between 1995 and 2001.

### Raindrop interactions and rainfall rates within clouds

 Date added: 11/30/1972 Date modified: 07/06/2009 Filesize: 787.75 kB

Brazier-Smith, P.R., Jennings, S.G., and Latham, J. (1973)- Raindrop interactions and rainfall rates within clouds. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 99, 260-272.

Abstract

Experiments showed that when a pair of water drops of raindrop dimensions collide and separate in air at their relative terminal velocities satellite drops are generally produced. Although the numbers and sizes of satellites resulting from individual interactions are highly variable a typical event produces about 3 satellites each having a volume of 0.04 ViVj/(Vi + Vj), where Vi and Vj are the volumes of the parent drops.

A full stochastic treatment is presented of the development of rainfall in a volume within a cloud where water is being released by condensation at a constant rate J. The production of satellites and an experimentally verified expression for the coalescence efficiency are incorporated into these calculations. Computations are made of the variation with time of the cloud water content, C, the rainwater content, L, the radar reflectivity, Z, the rainfall rate, P, and the drop-size distribution. The calculations show that the crucial parameter in governing the intensity and duration of rainfall is J, and that the microphysical processes are of secondary importance; C, L and P are all insensitive to and the production of satellite drops. The influence upon rainfall development of the break-up of large raindrops on attaining their maximum size within a cloud is found to be even less than that of the satellites.

The drop size distribution after several minutes of growth is insensitive to the initial spectrum but is markedly dependent upon and the production of satellites, which tend eventually to produce a bimodal spectrum. The radar reflectivity increases very rapidly with time (typically by about an order of magnitude every 2 1/2 minutes) and depends quite strongly on , but is unaffected by the production of satellites.

### European greenhouse gas emissions estimated from continuous atmospheric measurements and radon 222 at Mace Head, Ireland

 Date added: 07/31/2000 Date modified: 07/24/2009 Filesize: 1.37 MB

Biraud, S., Ciais, P., Ramonet, M., Simmonds, P.G., Kazan, V., Monfray, P., O'Doherty, S., Spain, T.G., and Jennings, S.G. (2000).European greenhouse gas emissions estimated from continuous atmospheric measurements and Radon 222 at Mace Head, Ireland. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 1351-1366.

Abstract

Flux estimates of CO2, CH4, N2O. and CFCs over western Europe have been inferred from continuous atmospheric records of these species at the atmospheric research station of Mace Head, Ireland. We use radon (222Rn) which has a fairly uniform source over continents as a reference compound to estimate unknown sources of other species. The correlation between each species and 222Rn is calculated for a suite of synoptic events that have been selected in the Mace Head record over the period 1996/97. In the following, we describe the method and its uncertainties, and we establish data selection criteria that minimize the influence of local sources over Ireland, in the vicinity of the station, in order to select synoptic events originating from western Europe. We estimate western European flux densities of 45-30 103 kg C km-2 month-1 during wintertime for CO2, of 4.8-3.5 10 kg CH4 km-2 yr-1, 475-330 kg N2O km-2 yr-1. 2.5-1.8 kg CFC-11 km-2 yr-1 for CFC-11, and 4.2-2.9 kg CFC-12 km-2 yr-1 for CFC-12. Our estimates are independent, although in good agreement with those produced by inventories, except for CFC- 1 where our estimate is much lower than the inventory.

### Measurement and interpretation of OH and HO2 radicals during NAMBLEX

 Date added: 08/06/2003 Date modified: 07/23/2009 Filesize: 8.76 kB
Lee, J.; Smith, S.; Bloss, W.; Heard, D.; Johnson, G.Measurement and interpretation of OH and HO2 radicals during NAMBLEX

Abstract

We present measurements of the hydroxyl, OH, and hydroperoxyl, HO2, radicals obtained during the summer 2002 North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, Ireland. Direct  easurements
of [OH] were made using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) at 308 nm, whilst measurements of [HO2] were made possible subsequent to chemical conversion to OH using NO. Calibration of the measurements of both species was carried out

using a technique based on the photolysis of H2O by a mercury lamp at 184.9 nm. Measurements of OH and HO2 were made on 24 and 13 days respectively, and the noon-time maxima in [OH] and [HO2] were found to vary between 3 - 8 x 10ˆ6 and 1.5 - 2.1 x 10ˆ8 molecule cm-3 respectively for j(O1D) in the range 0.5 - 2.2 x 10ˆ-5 s-1. There is significant evidence to support the presence of night-time HO2 radicals with concentrations in the range 2 - 3 x 10ˆ7 molecule cm-3 (mean [HO2] night-time detection limit 9.65 x 10ˆ6 molecule cm-3). The limited data available for [OH] at night suggest that there is some evidence for the presence of the species above its night-time detection limit (mean night-time [OH]  detection limit = 5.74 x 10ˆ4 molecule cm-3). The data set was used along with a wide range of supporting measurements to carry out a detailed study of chemistry in a range of clean and semi-polluted air masses. A strong correlation between [OH] and the rate of its primary production, P(OH), has been illustrated in both types of air mass with a reduction in dependence as [NOx] increases. A simple steady state calculation has also shown relatively good agreement highlighting the dominance of the CO and CH4 destruction routes in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL). An analysis of the functional dependence of [OH], [HO2] and the ratio [HO2] / [OH] on [NOx] illustrated the non linear relationship between HOx and NOx radicals. Steady state modelling of [OH] versus [NOx] gave results within the error of the measurements. Similar modelling of [HO2] and [HO2] / [OH] versus [NOx] agreed well at higher [NOx], but showed discrepancies of increasing magnitude for [NOx] < 900 pptv. The effect of the reaction of halogen monoxide species (IO and BrO) with HO2 is also investigated. Observed levels of IO and BrO during NAMBLEX are such that the XO + HO2 reaction can account for up to 40 % of the total sink for HO2 radicals during clean marine air (low NOx) episodes, and to make a significant contribution to the production of OH via the photolysis of HOX.

### Measurements of fractionated gaseous mercury concentrations over northwestern and central Europ

 Date added: 08/05/1999 Date modified: 07/23/2009 Filesize: 215.76 kB
Sommar, J., Feng, X., Gardfeldt, K. and Lindqvist, O., 1999. Measurements of fractionated gaseous mercury concentrations in northwestern and central Europe, 1995–99. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 1, pp. 435–439.

Abstract

Although it makes up only a few per cent. of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the atmosphere, the fraction of xidised (divalent) mercury plays a major role in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury due to its high affinity for water and surfaces. Quantitative knowledge of this fraction present in mixing ratios in the parts-per-1015 (ppq) range is currently very scarce. This work is based on #220 data for divalent gaseous mercury (DGM) collected during 1995–99 in ambient air. Over the course of the measurements, the sampling and analytical methods were modified and improved. This is described here in detail and includes transition from wet leaching and reduction procedures to thermo-reductive desorption, the use of annular as well as tubular denuders and adoption of an automated sampling system. The concentration of DGM exhibited a strong seasonal behaviour in contrast to atomic gaseous mercury, with low values in winter and maximum values in summer. The DGM/TGM ratios were frequently found to be below the detection limit (1%) and in the range 1–5%. A trend of diurnal DGM patterns was observed and implies photolytically induced sources. Scavenging of DGM during rain events was also noticed.

### Overview of the synoptic and pollution situation over Europe during the EUCAARI-LONGREX field campai

 Date added: 02/07/2011 Date modified: 02/07/2011 Filesize: 2.98 MB

Hamburger, T., G. McMeeking, A. Minikin, W. Birmili, M. Dall’Osto, C. O’Dowd, H. Flentje, B. Henzing, H. Junninen, A. Kristensson, G. de Leeuw, A. Stohl, J. F. Burkhart, H. Coe, R. Krejci, and A. Petzold

Abstract. In May 2008 the EUCAARI-LONGREX aircraft field campaign was conducted within the EUCAARI intensive observational period. The campaign aimed at studying the distribution and evolution of air mass properties on a continental scale. Airborne aerosol and trace gas measurements were performed aboard the German DLR Falcon 20 and the British FAAM BAe-146 aircraft. This paper outlines the meteorological situation over Europe during May 2008 and the temporal and spatial evolution of predominantly anthropogenic particulate pollution inside the boundary layer and the free troposphere. Time series data of six  selected ground stations are used to discuss continuous measurements besides the single flights. The observations encompass total and accumulation mode particle number concentration (0.1–0.8 μm) and black carbon mass concentration as well as several meteorological parameters. Vertical profiles of total aerosol number concentration up to 10 km are compared to vertical profiles probed during previous studies.During the first half of May 2008 an anticyclonic blocking event dominated the weather over Central Europe. It led to increased pollutant concentrations within the centre of the high pressure inside the boundary layer. Due to long-range transport the accumulated pollution was partly advected towards Western and Northern Europe. The measured aerosol number concentrations over Central Europe showed in the boundary layer high values up to 14 000 cm−3 for particles in diameter larger 10 nm and 2300 cm−3 for accumulation mode particles during the high pressure period, whereas the middle free troposphere showed rather low concentrations of particulates. Thus a strong negative gradient of aerosol concentrations between the well mixed boundary layer and the clean middle troposphere occurred.

### Physical Characteristic of the Ambient Aerosol At Macehead

 Date added: 07/31/1991 Date modified: 07/23/2009 Filesize: 3.29 MB

Jennings, S.G., O'Dowd, C.D., O'Connor, T.C., and McGovern, F.M (1991). - Physical characteristics of the ambient aerosol at Mace Head. Atmos. Environ., 25A, 557 - 562.

Abstract

This paper describes results of a reasonably extensive series of ambient aerosols measurements conducted for the first time from MAce HEad, on the west coast of Ireland. Aerosol size distributions (0.045 <radius,r, <1.5 micrometres (Um)) And Basic meteorological parameters were measured under both maritime, modified maritime and continental air mass conditions. It was found that the shape of the size distribution spectra is dependent on air mass source

### GAGE/AGAGE measurements indicating reductions in global emissions of CCl3F and CCl2F2 in 1992–1994

 Date added: 08/01/1997 Date modified: 07/24/2009 Filesize: 1.36 MB
Cunnold, D. M., R. F. Weiss, R. G. Prinn, D. Hartley, P. G. Simmonds, P. J. Fraser, B. Miller, F. N. Alyea, and L. Porter (1997), GAGE/AGAGE measurements indicating reductions in global emissions of CCl3F and CCl2F2 in 1992–1994, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D1), 1259–1269.

Abstract

Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment/Advanced GAGE (GAGE/AGAGE) observations of CCl3F indicate that global concentrations of this compound reached a maximum in 1993 and decayed slightly in 1994; CCl2F2 concentrations increased approximately 7 ppt in both 1993 and 1994. The observations suggest that world emissions in these two years were smaller than industry production figures would suggest and have decreased faster than expected under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. An analysis of regional pollution events at the Mace Head site suggest that industry may be underestimating the decline of emissions in Europe. It is argued, however, that the decline in European emissions is not biasing the background Mace Head measurements (or the GAGE global averages). Combining the chlorofluorocarbon measurements, including CCl2FCClF2, with GAGE/AGAGE measured global decreases in CH3CCl3 and CCl4 after 1992 and with Cape Grim archived air measurements of CHClF2, the measurements suggest that anthropogenic atmospheric chlorine loading from these six gases maximized in 1992 at 2.95 ± 0.04 ppb and that it had decreased by 0.02 ± 0.01 ppb by the beginning of 1995.

### In situ measurements of atmospheric methane at GAGE AGAGE sites during 1985–2000 and resulting source inferences

 Date added: 08/01/2002 Date modified: 07/24/2009 Filesize: 7.81 MB
Cunnold, D. M., et al. (2002), In situ measurements of atmospheric methane at GAGE/AGAGE sites during 1985–2000 and resulting source inferences, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D14), 4225, doi:10.1029/2001JD001226.

Abstract

Continuous measurements of methane since 1986 at the Global Atmospherics Gases Experiment/Advanced Global Atmospherics Gases Experiment (GAGE/AGAGE) surface sites are described. The precisions range from approximately 10 ppb at Mace Head, Ireland, during GAGE to better than 2 ppb at Cape Grim, Tasmania, during AGAGE (i.e., since 1993). The measurements exhibit good agreement with coincident measurements of air samples from the same locations analyzed by Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) except for differences of approximately 5 ppb before 1989 (GAGE lower) and about 4 ppb from 1991 to 1995 (GAGE higher). These results are obtained before applying a factor of 1.0119 to the GAGE/AGAGE values to place them on the Tohoku University scale. The measurements combined with a 12-box atmospheric model and an assumed atmospheric lifetime of 9.1 years indicates net annual emissions (emissions minus soil sinks) of 545 Tg CH4 with a variability of only ±20 Tg from 1985 to 1997 but an increase in the emissions in 1998 of 37 ± 10 Tg. The effect of OH changes inferred by Prinn et al. [2001] is to increase the estimated methane emissions by approximately 20 Tg in the mid-1980s and to reduce them by 20 Tg in 1997 and by more thereafter. Using a two-dimensional (2-D), 12-box model with transport constrained by the GAGE/AGAGE chlorofluorocarbon measurements, we calculate that the proportion of the emissions coming from the Northern Hemisphere is between 73 and 81%, depending on the OH distribution used. However, this result includes an adjustment of 5% derived from a simulation of the 2-D estimation procedure using the 3-D MOZART model. This adjustment is needed because of the very different spatial emission distributions of the chlorofluorocarbons and methane which makes chlorofluorocarbons derived transport rates inaccurate for the 2-D simulation of methane. The 2-D model combined with the annual cycle in OH from Spivakovsky et al. [2000] provide an acceptable fit to the observed 12-month cycles in methane. The trend in the amplitude of the annual cycle of methane at Cape Grim is used to infer a trend in OH in 30°–90°S of 0 ± 5% per decade from 1985 to 2000, in qualitative agreement with Prinn et al. [2001] for the Southern Hemisphere.

### Estimating source regions of European emissions of trace gases from observations at Mace Head

 Date added: 08/07/2001 Date modified: 07/27/2009 Filesize: 1004.2 kB

D.B. Ryall, R.G. Derwent, P.G. Simmonds, and S.J.O'Doherty. Estimating source regions of European emissions of trace gases from observations at Mace Head. Atmos. Environ. Vol 35, (2001), 2,507-25,23.

Abstract

A technique is described for identifying probable source locations for a range of greenhouse and ozone-depleting trace gases from the long-term measurements made at Mace Head, Ireland. The Met. Office's dispersion model NAME is used to predict concentrations at Mace Head from all possible sources in Europe, then source regions identified as those which consistently lead to elevated concentrations at Mace Head. Estimates of European emissions and their distribution are presented for a number of trace gases for the period 1995-1998. Estimated emission patterns are realistic, given the nature and varied applications of the species considered. The results indicate that whilst there are limitations, useful information about source distribution can be extracted from continuous measurements at a remote site. It is probable that much improved estimates could be derived if observations were available from a number of sites. The ability to assess emissions has obvious implications in monitoring compliance with internationally agreed quota and protocols.

### Minimizing light absorption measurement artifacts of the

 Date added: 02/15/2011 Date modified: 02/15/2011 Filesize: 2.71 MB

Collaud Coen, M., E. Weingartner, A. Apituley, D. Ceburnis, R. Fierz-Schmidhauser, H, Flentje, J.S. Henzing,  S.G. Jennings, M. Moerman, A. Petzold, O. Schmid, and U. Baltensperger. Minimizing light absorption measurement artifacts of the Aethalometer: evaluation of five correction algorithms: the EUSAAR protocol. Atmos. Meas.Technol., 3, 457-474, 2010.

The aerosol light absorption coefficient is an essential parameter involved in atmospheric radiation budget

calculations. The Aethalometer (AE) has the great advantage of measuring the aerosol light absorption coefficient at several wavelengths, but the derived absorption coefficients are systematically too high when compared to reference methods. Up to now, four different correction algorithms of the AE absorption coefficients have been proposed by several authors. A new correction scheme based on these previously published methods has been developed, which accounts for the optical properties of the aerosol particles embedded in the filter. All the corrections have been tested on six datasets representing different aerosol types and loadings and include multi-wavelength AE and white-light AE. All the corrections have also been evaluated through comparison with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) for four datasets lasting between 6 months and five years. The modification of the wavelength dependence by the different corrections is analyzed in detail. The performances and the limits of all AE corrections are determined and recommendations are given.

### European Emissions of HFC-365mfc, a Chlorine-Free Substitute for the Foam Blowing Agents HCFC-141b and CFC-11

 Date added: 08/05/2007 Date modified: 07/24/2009 Filesize: 595.17 kB

European Emissions of HFC-365mfc, a Chlorine-Free Substitute for the Foam Blowing Agents HCFC-141b and CFC-11
Stemmler, K., Folini, D., Ubl, S., Vollmer, M.K., Reimann, S., O'Doherty, S., Greally, B.R., Simmonds, P.G., and Manning, A.J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 4, 1145 - 1151, 2007,  10.1021/es061298h

Abstract

HFC-365mfc (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane) is an industrial chemical used for polyurethane foam blowing. From early 2003, HFC-365mfc has been commercially produced as a substitute for HCFC-141b, whose use in Europe has been banned since January 2004. We describe the first detection of HFC-365mfc in the atmosphere and report on a 2 year long record at the high Alpine station of Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) and the Atlantic coast station of Mace Head (Ireland). The measurements at Jungfraujoch are used to estimate the central European emissions of HFC-365mfc, HCFC-141b, and CFC-11. For HFC-365mfc, we estimate the central European emissions (Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg) in 2003 and 2004 as 400-500 tonnes year-1. These emissions are about one-third lower on a per capita basis than what we estimate from the Mace Head measurements for the total of Europe. The estimated emissions of HCFC-141b for central Europe are higher (i.e., 7.2-3.5 ktonnes year-1) with a decreasing trend in the period from 2000 to 2004. Residual emissions of CFC-11 are estimated at 2.4-4.7 ktonnes year-1 in the same time period. The Po Valley (northern Italy) appears to be a main source region for HFC-365mfc and for the former blowing agents HCFC-141b and CFC-11. In 2004, the emissions of HFC-365mfc arose from a wider region of Europe, which we attribute to an increased penetration of HFC-365mfc into the European market.

### Observations of iodine monoxide in the remote marine boundary layer

 Date added: 08/06/2000 Date modified: 07/23/2009 Filesize: 584.58 kB

Allan B. J., G. McFiggans, J. M. C. Plane and H. Coe Observations of iodine monoxide in the remote marine boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 14363-14369, 2000.

Abstract

We report measurements of the iodine monoxide (IO) radical in the marine boundary layer at three remote sites: Mace Head (Ireland), Tenerife (Canary Islands), and Cape Grim (Tasmania). IO was observed by long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy using the A2Π3/2-X2Π3/2 electronic transition between 415 and 450 nm. The daytime IO concentration at these three locations was found to vary from below the detection limit (≤0.2 parts per trillion (ppt)) to a maximum of 4 ppt, with an average of about 1 ppt. Of particular note is that the IO observed off the north coast of Tenerife, which is probably typical of the open ocean sub-tropical North Atlantic, exhibited a distinct diurnal cycle which correlated strongly with the solar actinic flux in the near UV. IO was also observed at Cape Grim to be present at much lower levels (0.3 ppt) in westerly air from the Southern Ocean. As is shown in the companion paper (McFiggans et al., this issue), these measurements of IO are satisfactorily reproduced by a photochemical box model incorporating the recycling of iodine through marine aerosol. This model indicates that the direct iodine-catalyzed destruction of ozone in the boundary layer may well be similar to the losses caused by odd-hydrogen photochemistry and dry deposition. The significance of this work is that IO is probably present in much of the open ocean boundary layer, at levels where it may cause significant depletion of ozone.

### Measurements of Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations in Northwestern and Central Europe --- Comparison

 Date added: 08/26/1995 Date modified: 07/23/2009 Filesize: 1.09 MB

R. Ebinghaus, H.H. Kock, S.G. Jennings, P. McCartin and M.J. Orren (1995): Measurements of Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations in Northwestern and Central Europe --- Comparison of Experimental Data and Model Results, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 29, No. 22, pp. 3333 - 3344

Abstract

Field experiments were carried out at various sites in Europe to compare ambient air and precipitation concentrations of atmospheric mercury with model data. In addition, ozone and aerosol black carbon concentrations in air were measured simultaneously as input data for validation of the EMEP-based European long-range transport model. Data sets for mercury in air and precipitation, ozone and aerosol black carbon show that the selected sites range from background conditions for Northwestern Europe to regionally influenced air masses from heavily industrialized Central Europe. Measured 12 h averaged mercury concentrations in air range from 2.1 ng m-3 for Mace Head, Ireland to 8.2 ng m-3 for the Halle/Leipzig/Bitterfeld area in former German Democratic Republic. Precipitation concentrations of total mercury from 17 to 460 ng k-1 were measured from 1991 to 1993 for the same sites. Experimental data and model results for total gaseous mercury and mercury in precipitation are in good agreement.

### Effect of instrumental particle sizing resolution on the modelling of aerosol radiative parameters

 Date added: 03/04/2010 Date modified: 03/04/2010 Filesize: 886.14 kB

Chamaillard, K., S. G.  Jennings, D. Ceburnis, Y.J. Yoon and C. O’Dowd.  Effect of instrumental particle sizing resolution on the modelling of aerosol radiative parameters. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Volume 111, Issue 5, 2010, Pages 753-771

Abstract.

A more realistic estimation of the scattering and hemispheric backscattering coefficients, ssp and sbsp, and their respective optical cross section, Csca and Cbk, of aerosol particles is presented on the basis of the exact resolution of the width of the size bins of the particle counter instruments when size distribution measurements are used, and, with the exact optical detector instruments ability. The scattering and hemispheric back scattering cross sections, Csca and Cbk, of the particles are averaged over the full size bins of the particle counter instrument, while the sequantities are usually estimated only on the value of the mean geometric diameter of each size bin. Six instruments, the APS, ASASP-X, DMPS,FSSP-100, ELPI, and SMPS frequently used in particle size distribution measurements are reviewed, for spherical sea-salt particles at a wavelength l=0.55 mm. The comparison using the conventional geometric mean diameter versus the use of the full size bin leads to large amount of errors for the optical cross section with non-negligible effects on their respective optical coefficients.The maximal accuracy expected for these optical quantities depend on the particle diameter as well as on the channel width of the instruments, and are also function of the angular detector probe used to measure them..

### An ozone budget for the UK using measurements... ozone monitoring network; measured and modelle

 Date added: 08/07/2003 Date modified: 07/27/2009 Filesize: 541.71 kB

Coyle M., et al., “An ozone budget for the UK: using measurements from the national ozone  monitoring network; measured and modelled meteorological data, and a 'big-leaf' resistance
analogy model of dry deposition”,  Environmental Pollution, 123 (1), 115-123, 2003.

Abstract

Data from the UK national air-quality monitoring network are used to calculate an annual mass budget for ozone (O3) production and loss in the UK boundary layer during 1996. Monthly losses by dry deposition are quantified from 1 km1 km scale maps of O3 concentration and O3 deposition velocities based on a ‘big  leaf ’ resistance analogy. The quantity of O3 deposition varies from 50 Gg-O3 month1 in the winter to over 200 Gg-O3 month1 in the summer when vegetation is actively absorbing O3. The net O3 production or loss in the UK boundary layer is found by selecting days when the UK is receiving ‘‘clean’’ Atlantic air from the SW to NW. In these conditions, the difference in O3 concentration observed at Mace Head and a rural site on the east coast of the UK indicates the net O3 production or loss within the UK boundary layer. A simple box model is then used to convert the concentration difference into a mass. The final budget shows that for most of the year the UK is a net sink for O3 (25 to 800 Gg-O3 month1) with production only exceeding losses in the photochemically active summer months (+45 Gg-O3 month1).

### Particle size dependent response of aerosol counters

 Date added: 08/01/2002 Date modified: 07/03/2009 Filesize: 652.99 kB
Ankilov, A., A Baklanov, M. Colhoun, K-H. Enderle, J. Gras, Yu Jualanov, D. Kaller, A. Linder, A.A. Lushnikov, R. Mavliev, F. McGovern, T.C. O'Connor, J. Podzimek, O. Prining, G.P. Reischl, R. Rudolf, G.J. Sem, W.W. Szymanski, E. Tamm, A.E. Vrtala, P.E. Wagner, W. Winklmayr and V. Zagaynov, Particle size dependent response of aerosol particle counters, Atmos. Res., 62, 209-238, 2002.

Abstract

During an international workshop at the Institute for Experimental Physics of the University of Vienna, Austria, which was coordinated within the Committee on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols (IAMAS-IUGG), 10 instruments for aerosol number concentration measurement were studied, covering a wide range of methods based on various different measuring principles. In order to investigate the detection limits of the instruments considered with respect to particle size, simultaneous number concentration measurements were performed for monodispersed aerosols with particle sizes ranging from 1.5 to 50 nm diameter and various compositions.

The instruments considered show quite different response characteristics, apparently related to the different vapors used in the various counters to enlarge the particles to an optically detectable size. A strong dependence of the 50% cutoff diameter on the particle composition in correlation with the type of vapor used in the specific instrument was found. An enhanced detection efficiency for ultrafine hygroscopic sodium chloride aerosols was observed with water operated systems, an analogous trend was found for n-butanol operated systems with nonhygroscopic silver and tungsten oxide particles.

### Continuous high-frequency observations of hydrogen at the Mace Head baseline atmospheric monitoring station over the 1994–1998 period

 Date added: 08/01/2000 Date modified: 07/09/2009 Filesize: 1.57 MB
Simmonds, P. G., R. G. Derwent, S. O'Doherty, D. B. Ryall, L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, P. Salameh, H. J. Wang, C. H. Dimmer, and L. E. Hudson (2000), Continuous high-frequency observations of hydrogen at the Mace Head baseline atmospheric monitoring station over the 1994–1998 period, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D10), 12,105–12,121

Abstract

Continuous high-frequency (every 40-min) automatic measurements of hydrogen have been made at the Mace Head atmospheric research station on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ireland throughout 1994–1998. These observations represent one the most comprehensive in situ records of a trace gas that has received comparatively little attention. Individual measurements have been sorted by four independent methods to separate clean, maritime air masses from regionally polluted European air masses. Hydrogen concentrations in midlatitude Northern Hemisphere baseline air show a distinct seasonal cycle with highest concentrations during spring and lowest concentrations during late autumn, with a peak-to-trough amplitude of 38 ± 6 ppb, averaged over the observed seasonal cycles from 1994 to 1998. The mean hydrogen concentration in midlatitude Northern Hemisphere baseline air on January 1, 1995, was estimated as 496.5 ppb with an upward trend of 1.2 ± 0.8 ppb yr−1. Evidence has also been obtained for European pollution sources with source strength of about 0.8 Tg yr−1 and for deposition of hydrogen to soils. The observation of slightly elevated hydrogen concentrations relative to baseline levels in tropical maritime air masses points to a latitudinal gradient in hydrogen with higher concentrations in lower latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and in the Southern Hemisphere. This is confirmed by comparable hydrogen observations at Cape Grim, Tasmania, which are consistently higher than measurements recorded at Mace Head. Mean hemispheric concentrations of 504 and 520 ppb have been estimated for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively, for January 1, 1996, corresponding to a total atmospheric hydrogen burden of 182 Tg.

### Attenuated total reflectance measurements of the complex refractive index of kaolinite powder at CO2 laser wavelengths

 Date added: 07/31/1985 Date modified: 06/30/2009 Filesize: 1.63 MB

Pinnick, R.G., Jennings, S.G., Boice, D.C., and Cruncleton, J.P. (1985). - Attenuated total reflectance measurement of the complex refractive index of kaolinite powder at CO2 laser wavelengths. Appl. Opt., 24, 3274 - 3285.

Abstract

Attenuated total reflectance measurements of the complex refractive index of kaolinite powder-air mixtures are made for nine CO2 laser wavelengths. The Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory and generalizations of it that account for either the shape distribution of kaolinite grains in the medium (in which the grains are approximated by a shape distribution of small arbitrarily oriented ellipsoids) or the size distribution of grains (in which finite grain sizes are accounted for by considering, in addition to the electric dipole interaction, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole interactions) are used to deduce from these measurements the complex refractive index of kaolinite. Most success is achieved with a generalization which assumes a shape distribution of small ellipsoidal grains but which neglects all but electric dipole interactions. In spectral regions where kaolinite displays very strong absorption (in the 9.6-10-,um spectral region) all effective medium theory solutions for kaolinite refractive index either are plagued with ill-conditioning or are nonphysical. It appears that the attenuated total reflectance method, at least as we have applied it here to loosely packed powders comprised of nonspherical grains, is not suitable for measurement of powders in spectral regions of strong absorption.

### Physicochemical properties of atmospheric aerosol at South UIST

 Date added: 08/06/1996 Date modified: 07/03/2009 Filesize: 906.46 kB

J. A. Lowe, M. H. Smith, B. M. Davison, S. E. Benson, M. K. Hill, C. D. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, C. N. Hewitt, Physicochemical properties of atmospheric aerosol at South UIST, Atmospheric EnvironmentVolume 30, Issue 22, , November 1996, Pages 3765-3776.

Abstract

Four field campaigns over the period November 1993 to August 1994 were undertaken on the island of South Uist, off the northwest coast of Scotland as part of the BMCAPE project. Measurements were made of the concentration and chemical composition of aerosol particles, utilising a variety of instruments. Sulphur and nitrogen gas species were also measured throughout these campaigns, together with appropriate meteorological parameters. A variety of air mass types were encountered during the campaigns and the relationship between the physical and chemical aerosol properties are discussed in terms of air mass histories and season factors.

### Marine aerosols and iodine emissions

 Date added: 08/01/2005 Date modified: 07/24/2009 Filesize: 77.44 kB

O’Dowd, C.D., J.L. Jimenez, R. Bahreini, R.C. Flagan J.H. Seinfeld, L. Pirjola, M. Kulmala, S.FG. Jennings and T. Hoffmann, Marine aerosols and iodine emissions, Nature, DOI 10.1038/nature03373, 2005.

Abstract

The formation of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei—from which marine clouds originate—depends ultimately on the availability of new, nanometre-scale particles in the marine boundary layer. Because marine aerosols and clouds scatter incoming radiation and contribute a cooling effect to the Earth's radiation budget1, new particle production is important in climate regulation. It has been suggested that sulphuric acid—derived from the oxidation of dimethyl sulphide—is responsible for the production of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei. It was accordingly proposed that algae producing dimethyl sulphide play a role in climate regulation2, but this has been difficult to prove and, consequently, the processes controlling marine particle formation remains largely undetermined3, 4. Here, using smog chamber experiments under coastal atmospheric conditions, we demonstrate that new particles can form from condensable iodine-containing vapours, which are the photolysis products of biogenic iodocarbons emitted from marine algae. Moreover, we illustrate, using aerosol formation models, that concentrations of condensable iodine-containing vapours over the open ocean are sufficient to influence marine particle formation. We suggest therefore that marine iodocarbon emissions have a potentially significant effect on global radiative forcing.

### The Impact of Ship-Produced Aerosols on the Microstructure and Albedo of Warm

 Date added: 08/06/2000 Date modified: 07/08/2009 Filesize: 176.35 kB

Durkee, P. and co authors, 2000: The impact of ship-produced aerosols on the microstructure and albedo of warm marine stratocumulus clouds: A test of MAST hypotheses 1i and 1ii. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2554-2569.

Abstract

Anomalously high reflectivity tracks in stratus and stratocumulus sheets associated with ships (known as ship tracks) are commonly seen in visible and near-infrared satellite imagery. Until now there have been only a limited number of in situ measurements made in ship tracks. The Monterey Area Ship Track (MAST) experiment, which was conducted off the coast of California in June 1994, provided a substantial dataset on ship emissions and their effects on boundary layer clouds. Several platforms, including the University of Washington C-131A aircraft, the Meteorological Research Flight C-130 aircraft, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ER-2 aircraft, the Naval Research Laboratory airship, the Research Vessel Glorita, and dedicated U.S. Navy ships, participated in MAST in order to study processes governing the formation and maintenance of ship tracks. This paper tests the hypotheses that the cloud microphysical changes that produce ship tracks are due to (a) particulate emission from the ship's stack and/or (b) sea-salt particles from the ship's wake. It was found that ships powered by diesel propulsion units that emitted high concentrations of aerosols in the accumulation mode produced ship tracks. Ships that produced few particles (such as nuclear ships), or ships that produced high concentrations of particles but at sizes too small to be activated as cloud drops in typical stratocumulus (such as gas turbine and some steam-powered ships), did not produce ship tracks. Statistics and case studies, combined with model simulations, show that provided a cloud layer is susceptible to an aerosol perturbation, and the atmospheric stability enables aerosol to be mixed throughout the boundary layer, the direct emissions of cloud condensation nuclei from the stack of a diesel-powered ship is the most likely, if not the only, cause of the formation of ship tracks. There was no evidence that salt particles from ship wakes cause ship tracks.

### Biogenic sulphur emissions and inferred non-sea-salt-sulphate CCN around Antarctica

 Date added: 08/06/1997 Date modified: 07/01/2009 Filesize: 1.53 MB

O'Dowd, C. D., J. A. Lowe, M. H. Smith, B. Davison, C. N. Hewitt, and R. M. Harrison (1997), Biogenic sulphur emissions and inferred non-sea-salt-sulphate cloud condensation nuclei in and around Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D11), 12,839–12,854.

Abstract

Accumulation mode aerosol properties and biogenic sulphur emissions over the South Atlantic and Antarctic Oceans are examined. Two contrasting air masses, polar and maritime, each possessing distinct aerosol properties, were encountered during the summer months. By examining aerosol volatile properties, polar air masses arriving from the Antarctic continent were shown to consist primarily Of H2SO4 in the accumulation mode size range, with inferred NH+ 4 to SO= 4 molar ratios close to zero. By comparison, air masses of temperate maritime origin were significantly neutralized with molar ratios of ≈1. These results suggest a deficit of ammonia in polar air masses compared with that in maritime air masses. Dimethyl sulphide (DMS) exhibited no correlation with its putative aerosol oxidation products, although spatial coherence in atmospheric concentrations of DMS, methane sulphonic acid (MSA), and non-sea-salt (nss)-sulphate mass was observed. Volatility analysis, used to infer nss-sulphate cloud condensation nuclei (nss-sCCN) active at a supersaturation of ≈0.2%, indicates that nss-sCCN mass and number concentration were best correlated with MSA mass (r≈0.63). Aerosol volatility identified the presence of MSA in submicron non-sea-salt aerosol; however, its contribution to the aerosol mass was small relative to the contribution of sulphuric acid and ammonium bisulphate/sulphate aerosol. The marine sulphur cycle appears strongly coupled to the sea-salt cycle with, typically, 80–90% of nss-sulphate thought to be internally mixed with sea-salt aerosol. During the austral Summer of 1992/1993, a period of strong biological productivity in the Weddell Sea and sub-Antarctic Ocean, particularly during ice-melt, the cruise-average DMS flux of 61 μg m−2 d−1 corresponded to a very modest average nss-sCCN concentration of 21 cm−3. Observed peak values of DMS flux and inferred nss-CCN concentrations during the cruise were 477 μg m−2 d−1 and 64 cm−3, respectively. Events of new particle formation were identified in the Weddell Sea and occurred under conditions of high DMS flux and low aerosol surface area.

### Effects of continental boundary layer evolution convection turbulence and entrainment on...

 Date added: 08/06/2001 Date modified: 07/01/2009 Filesize: 740.44 kB

Nilsson, E.D., U. Rannik, G. Buzorius, C.D. O'Dowd, Effects of continental boundary layer evolution, convection, turbulence and entrainment on aerosol formation, Tellus B, 53, 441-461,, 2001.

Abstract

Aerosol nucleation events occurring in the continental boundary layer over the boreal forest region in Finland, during the BIOFOR experiment, have been examined to elucidate the rôle of micrometeorology in promoting such events. Invariably, during the spring campaign of 1999. nucleation events occurred in Arctic and polar air masses during cold air outbreaks. Under clear-sky conditions, typical of these synoptic meteorological patterns, the boundary layer evolution was characterized by the rapid growth of a mixed layer, convection and strong entrainment, first from the residual later and later from the free troposphere. It was found that the freshly nucleated particles were detected within two hours from the onset of strong turbulent kinetic energy, independent of how fast the boundary layer evolved. When considering the growth time from cluster size of ≃ 1 nm to detectable sizes of 3 nm. the nucleation and onset of strong turbulence coincided almost exactly. The most likely site for nucleation to take place was the mixed layer or the entrainment zone, while the forest canopy and the free troposphere could be excluded as the nucleation region. There are several possible explanations for the correlation between the onset of turbulence and nucleation: (1) new aerosols or clusters may have been entrained from the residual layer into the mixed layer where they then (in the case of clusters) underwent growth to detectable sizes: (2) two or more precursor gases may have been mixed with each other over the entrainment zone; (3) the adiabatic cooling in the rising convective plumes and the turbulent fluctuation in temperature and vapors by the entrainment flux may have enhanced aerosol formation; (4) a sudden decrease in preexisting aerosol due to dilution of the mixed layer aerosol by entrained air may have reduced the vapor sink enough to initiate nucleation. However, the lack of vertical profile measurements of nucleation mode aerosols, precursor vapors and turbulent fluctuations throughout and above the mixed-layer results in it remaining an open question as to which one of these processes dominates.

### Hygroscopic properties of nucleation mode and Aitken mode particles during nucleation bursts an

 Date added: 08/06/2002 Date modified: 07/24/2009 Filesize: 925.58 kB

Väkevä, M., K. Hämeri, and P. P. Aalto (2002), Hygroscopic properties of nucleation mode and Aitken mode particles during nucleation bursts and in background air on the west coast of Ireland, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D19), 8104, doi:10.1029/2000JD000176.

Abstract

The hygroscopic and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties of submicrometer atmospheric aerosol particles were investigated using an Ultrafine Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (UF-TDMA) and a CCN counter at the Mace Head Monitoring Station on the west coast of Ireland during the New Particle Formation and Fate in the Coastal Environment (PARFORCE) field campaign in September 1998 and June 1999. These measurements give indirect in situ information on the composition and state of mixing of the aerosol particles. The UF-TDMA was used for monitoring of hygroscopic diameter growth factors of aerosol particles with dry mobility diameters 8–20 nm when taken from dry state to a controlled humid environment (RH 90%). The CCN counter was used to study the activation of aerosol particles when exposed to supersaturated conditions (dry diameters of 15–150 nm). It was seen that in clean marine air masses during the observed particle formation events, the newly formed nucleation mode particles (8 and 10 nm) most often had low growth factors (between 1.0 and 1.1) resulting from low solubility. This indicates that the nucleation mode particles consist of nonsoluble or weakly soluble species, possible accompanied by a small soluble part; however, when nucleation mode particles were observed outside the event periods, the growth factors were higher (about 1.3–1.4). In contrast, the 20 nm particles usually clearly belonged to the Aitken mode (based on number size distribution measurements) and had hygroscopic properties similar to some common salts (growth factors 1.4–1.5).

### Gas-Aerosol Relationships of OH, H2SO4, and MSA Observations in the Coastal Marine Boundary Layer at Mace Head

 Date added: 07/31/2002 Date modified: 07/27/2009 Filesize: 542.87 kB
H. Berresheim, T. Elste, H.G. Tremmel, C O'Dowd, A.Allen, H.C. Hansson, K Rosman, M. dal Maso, J. Makela, and Markku Kulmala. Gas-Aerosol Relationships of OH, H2SO4, and MSA: Observations in the Coastal Marine Boundary Layer at Mace Head, Ireland. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2000JD000229, 2002.

Abstract

Atmospheric concentrations of gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4), methane sulfonic acid (MSA), and hydroxyl radicals (OH) were measured by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) during the second New Particle Formation and Fate in the Coastal Environment (PARFORCE) campaign in June 1999 at Mace Head, Ireland. Overall median concentrations in marine background air were 1.5, 1.2, and 0.12 × 106 cm−3, respectively. H2SO4 was also present at night indicating significant contributions from nonphotochemical sources. A strong correlation was found between daytime OH and H2SO4 levels in clean marine air suggesting a fast local production of H2SO4 from sulfur precursor gases. Steady state balance calculations of ambient H2SO4 levels agreed with measured concentrations if either very low H2SO4 sticking coefficients (0.02–0.03) or sources in addition to the SO2 + OH reaction were assumed. Overall, variations in ambient H2SO4 levels showed no correlation with either the tidal cycle or ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations. However, on particular days an anticorrelation between H2SO4 and UFP levels was occasionally observed providing evidence for the contribution of H2SO4 to new particle formation and/or particle growth. Gaseous MSA concentrations were inversely correlated with dew point temperature reflecting a highly sensitive gas-particle partitioning equilibrium of this compound. The present observations seriously question the general use of MSA as a conservative tracer to infer the relative production yield of H2SO4 from dimethylsulfide (DMS) oxidation. MSA/H2SO4 concentration ratios typically ranged between 0.06 and 1.0 in marine air at ground level. Measured diel OH profiles showed a significant deviation from concurrent variations of the ozone photolysis frequency. They also showed up to 1 order of magnitude lower values compared to OH concentrations calculated with a simple photochemical box model. These differences were most pronounced during particle nucleation events occurring on sunny days around noon and at low tide. The present results suggest that both the oxidation capacity and the particle formation potential in the coastal boundary layer were significantly affected by reactions of unknown compounds prevailing in this type of environment.

### Interannual variability over the eastern North Atlantic Ocean Chemical and meteorological evide

 Date added: 08/06/1994 Date modified: 07/24/2009 Filesize: 1.53 MB

Doddridge, B. G., P. A. Dirmeyer, J. T. Merrill, S. J. Oltmans, and R. R. Dickerson (1994), Interannual variability over the eastern North Atlantic Ocean: Chemical and meteorological evidence for tropical influence on regional-scale transport in the extratropics, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D11), 22,923–22,935.

Abstract

Observed boreal fall season (September–November) 1991 surface CO data from Mace Head, Ireland, are characterized by particularly high mixing ratios, as evidenced by high means, medians, and maxima for those months, relative to the same dato for boreal fall 1992. Air parcels characterized by elevated CO during fall 1991 are attributed to European sources on the basis of isentropic back trajectory analysis. A histogram of the 1991 data shows a bimodal distribution representing two discrete source regions, North Atlantic and European, while the 1992 data show only one mode, representing primarily zonal westerly flow over the North Atlantic Ocean. A similar distinction exists in O3 data between the two years. Considerable interannual variability has important implications for observationalists and modelers alike; an inherent uncertainty is introduced by basing any determination of trend from only a few years of data. An isentropic flow climatology for Mace Head illustrates significant differences in the regional-scale flow patterns to Mace Head between the 1991 and the 1992 fall seasons. These differences have been examined in terms of general dynamical principles and tropical/extratropical coupling. There is evidence of the existence of Rossby wave links with the tropical upper troposphere over South America and the central Pacific Ocean which are responsible for the climatic forcing giving rise to the observed interannual variation in large-scale flow patterns and influencing the chemical character of air parcels reaching Mace Head. Using CO as a tracer for short-lived continental anthropogenic O3 precursors and calculating ΔO3/ΔCO for air parcel trajectories following anticyclonic paths over western Europe during the late summer and fall season of 1991, we estimate O3 production over western Europe at about 66 (40–96) billion moles of O3 per summer (∼3 Tg O3 per summer), based on 1985 CO emission inventory dam (37 Tg CO yr−1 for western Europe).

### Measurements of Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations in Northwestern and Central Europe --- Comparison

 Date added: 08/26/1995 Date modified: 07/10/2009 Filesize: 1.12 MB

R. Ebinghaus, H.H. Kock, S.G. Jennings, P. McCartin and M.J. Orren (1995): Measurements of Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations in Northwestern and Central Europe --- Comparison of Experimental Data and Model Results, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 29, No. 22, pp. 3333 - 3344

Abstract

Field experiments were carried out at various sites in Europe to compare ambient air and precipitation concentrations of atmospheric mercury with model data. In addition, ozone and aerosol black carbon concentrations in air were measured simultaneously as input data for validation of the EMEP-based European long-range transport model. Data sets for mercury in air and precipitation, ozone and aerosol black carbon show that the selected sites range from background conditions for Northwestern Europe to regionally influenced air masses from heavily industrialized Central Europe. Measured 12 h averaged mercury concentrations in air range from 2.1 ng m-3 for Mace Head, Ireland to 8.2 ng m-3 for the Halle/Leipzig/Bitterfeld area in former German Democratic Republic. Precipitation concentrations of total mercury from 17 to 460 ng k-1 were measured from 1991 to 1993 for the same sites. Experimental data and model results for total gaseous mercury and mercury in precipitation are in good agreement.

### Combination coefficients of small positive ions with sub micrometer aerosol particles

 Date added: 02/14/1978 Date modified: 07/01/2009 Filesize: 745.64 kB

Dixon, A.M., and Jennings, S.G. (1978).- Combination coefficients of small ions with submicrometre aerosol particles. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 11, 125-136.

Abstract

The work was concerned with the simultaneous measurement of the combination coefficients b and eta 0, between small ions and aerosol particles, and between small ions and uncharged aerosol particle respectively, for different particle radii. The ion-ion mutual repulsion coefficient gamma had a mean experimental value of 2.39 (+or-0.14)*10-6 cm3 s-1. The decay of ions in the presence of aerosol particles in a mylar vessel was recorded and compared with a family of computed theoretical ion-aerosol decay curves to determine b. eta 0 could then be determined from concentration of uncharged nuclei present. Satisfactory agreement was found between the b eta 0 versus radius results and various theoretically computed values. Possible reasons for discrepancies between theory and experiment are indicated.

### External influences on Europe's air quality Baseline methane, carbon monoxide and ozone from 19

 Date added: 08/07/2006 Date modified: 07/24/2009 Filesize: 645.4 kB

Derwent, RG, Simmonds, PG, O'Doherty, S, et al , External influences on Europe''s air quality: Baseline methane, carbon monoxide and ozone from 1990 to 2030 at Mace Head, Ireland, ATMOS ENVIRON, 2006, Vol: 40, Pages: 844 - 855, ISSN: 1352-2310

Abstract

A global 3-D chemistry-transport model STOCHEM has been employed to study trends in the mole fractions of methane, carbon monoxide and ozone in baseline air masses entering Europe from the Atlantic Ocean over the period from 1990 to 2030. With a range of emission scenarios for man-made ozone precursor emission sources available, a wide range of model trends were predicted for the period up to 2030. In the scenario based on current planned air pollution controls, IIASA CLE, methane shows a strong upward trend, ozone shows a weaker upward trend, and carbon monoxide is approximately flat in baseline air masses. In one of the more pessimistic IPCC SRES scenarios, A2, all three gases show future increases. However, in the scenario based on maximum feasible emission reductions, IIASA MFR all three trace gases decline. By 2030, projected climate change reduces the growth in CH4, but has insignificant effects on baseline CO and O3 in these simulations. Global or hemispheric ozone precursor emissions and their controls exert a potentially large external influence on Europe’s air quality. This influence is currently not taken into account in future European air quality policy formulation.

### Observations on the Aitken nuclei in Atlantic air

 Date added: 01/01/1961 Date modified: 07/23/2009 Filesize: 796.79 kB

O'Connor, T.C, Sharkey, W.P.F., and Flanagan, V.P. (1961)- Observations on the Aitken nuclei in Atlantic air, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc., 87, pp.105-108.

Abstract

The concentration, size and distribution of charges on Aitken nuclei in air from the Atlantic Ocean were measured at a station on the western coast of Ireland where man-made pollution was most unlikely. The results are examined in relation to the meteorological elements and human activities. Some sources of the nuclei observed in maritime air are discussed.

### Quantification of the carbonaceous matter origin in submicron marine aerosol particles by dual carbo

 Date added: 08/25/2011 Date modified: 08/25/2011 Filesize: 5.12 MB

Ceburnis, A. Garbaras, S. Szidat, M. Rinaldi, S. Fahrni, N. Perron, L. Wacker, S. Leinert, V. Remeikis, M. C. Facchini, A. S. H. Prevot, S. G. Jennings, and C. D. O'Dowd. Quantification of the carbonaceous matter origin in submicron marine aerosol particles by dual carbon isotope analysis,  Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8593–8606, 2011, doi:10.5194/acp-11-8593-2011

Abstract.

Dual carbon isotope analysis of marine aeroso samples has been performed for the first time demonstrating a potential in organic matter apportionment  etween three principal sources: marine, terrestrial (non-fossil) and fossil fuel due to unique isotopic signatures. The results presented here, utilising combinations of dual carbon isotope analysis, provides conclusive evidence of a dominant biogenic organic fraction to organic aerosol over biologically active oceans. In particular, the NE Atlantic, which is also subjected to notable anthropogenic influences via pollution transport processes, was found to contain 80% organic aerosol matter of biogenic origin directly linked to plankton emissions. The remaining carbonaceous aerosol was of terrestrial origin. By contrast, for polluted air advected out from Europe into the NE Atlantic, the source apportionment is 30% marine biogenic, 40% fossil fuel, and 30% continental non-fossil fuel. The dominant marine organic aerosol source in the atmosphere has significant implications for climate change feedback processes.

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